UROGYNAECOLOGY

The last decade has seen a rapid advance, in the management options.  in treating Pelvic Floor Disorders. Symptoms associated with Urogynaecology are not life threatening, but they can have an impact of the quality of life, faced by women.

The common problems when one has a urogynaecoloical dysfunction are with respect to pelvic floor and urinary incontinence.

Possible symptoms include the following:

  • An overactive bladder leading to frequent visits to the washroom and leakage before reaching the toilet.
  • Leakage of urine on daily activities like coughing, sneezing and exercises.
  • Losing control over the bladder and feeling a need to urinate (when you otherwise actually wouldn’t want to) with repeated wetting of undergarments.
  • Recurrent or Chronic Urinary Tract Infection
  • Chronic constipation and bowel problems
  • Feeling a bit of pressure, pain in the pelvis

Pelvic Organ Prolapse

This condition occurs due to weakness in the Pelvic floor muscles. Pelvic organ Prolapse is also referred to as Genital Prolapse or Uterine Prolapse. Prolapse in simple terms means vital organs falling off their original places. Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition among women with atleast 40% of them facing it at some stage in their lives.

The most common types of Pelvic Organ Prolapse noticed are:

  • Cystocele ( Prolapse of Bladder into the Vagina)
  • Rectocele (Rectum Prolapse)
  • Uterine Prolapse
  • Urethrocele( Prolapse of the Urethra)
  • Vaginal Vault Prolapse ( Prolapse of the Vagina)

What is urinary incontinence?

In simple terms, unintentional leakage of urine (either in large quantity or few drops), is referred to as Urinary Incontinence.

There are two main types of incontinence:  Stress Incontinence and Urge Incontinence.

  • Stress Incontinence: Stress incontinence is a condition that results in leakage of urine when the abdominal pressure is higher than the Sphincter pressure (Sphincter is a muscle that closes the bladder outlet). It can happen due to common physical activity like coughing, sneezing or laughing or either during jumping or walking too. Pelvic floor muscle exercises are the initial and most effective ways to treat stress urinary incontinence. Your doctors might also recommend a stress incontinence surgery, depending upon the severity of incontinence. Studies have also indicated that the success rate for stress continence surgeries is as high as 90%.
  • Urge Incontinence: This is a condition which occurs due to an overactive bladder that leads to an uncontrollable need to void urine. You leak urine before you decide and reach the toilet. Reducing the consumption of irritants like alcohol, tea or coffee can also play a major role in controlling urge incontinence.

Studies and Researches conducted have also indicated that out of 35-45% of women, who face incontinence problem, about 20-25% are purely stress Incontinence while around 3-5% are purely urge incontinence. The remaining 11% of women are also known to face another condition known as mixed incontinence, which is a mix of both stress and urge incontinence. The types of incontinence treatments include physical therapies, behavioral therapies as well as surgeries.

Source : Campbells text book Urology